Reverse Osmosis Filtration Systems
Water contamination is one of the concerns for everyone drawing water from the well, city water sources, or other water bodies. If you are drawing water from the city water source, you are receiving the water that is sanitized and treated to remove certain contaminants. However, you still need to check out for chemicals like chloramines, fluoride, and chlorine, which may pose severe health hazards. If you are drawing water from a well and drinking it directly there are chances that you are consuming water laden with contaminants from pesticides or chemical factories or waste produced by different sources.
There are several water treatment systems that claim to offer a permanent solution from harmful contaminants; however, reverse osmosis systems are the most effective among them. At Cannon Water Technology, we provide reverse osmosis systems from industry-leading brands. Our selection features reverse osmosis filtration systems as well as several reverse osmosis components, which are proven to offer effective results in contaminant removal. We assure the fastest turnaround times on all reverse osmosis equipment listed on this page.
What is Reverse Osmosis Filtration System and How it Improves Water Quality?
Reverse osmosis is a water filtration process where water from a source is made to pass through a semi-permeable membrane. This membrane removes dissolved inorganic solids from the water. This process is quite unlike other water filtration options where water is pushed through only filtration media. Here, water is made to pass through different water filtration media and purified water then goes to the storage tank and contaminants are directed to the drain. Reverse osmosis systems are designed to remove contaminants such as fluoride, lead, pesticides, chlorine and chloramine, nitrates and sulfates, arsenic, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), herbicides, pesticides, detergents, and many more.
What Type of Contaminants are Removed by Reverse Osmosis Systems?
Reverse osmosis filtration systems can remove a wide range of contaminants, including:
- Dissolved Solids: RO water filters can remove many dissolved solids, such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium. If allowed to stay on, many of these dissolved solids can impair the taste and color of water and also form mineral buildups in appliances and pipes.
- Heavy Metals: Water drawn from natural water resources may feature heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, cadmium, and so on. These heavy metals are known to be harmful for human consumption. Their side effects may range from non-fatal consequences such as physical and muscle weakness to fatal consequences like cancer, nervous system or brain disorders, etc. RO water filter systems help remove these metals effectively.
- Pesticides and Herbicides: The water resources near agricultural zones stand high chance of contamination due to pesticides and herbicides. RO water filtration systems can remove common pesticides and herbicides, such as Endrin, Heptachlor, Lindane, and Pentachlorophenol.
- Volatile Organic Compounds: Reverse osmosis water purification systems can remove many volatile organic compounds, such as petroleum-based contaminants, industrial chemicals, and solvents.
- Sediments and Particles: Although these components are not visible to human eyes, they can change the color and taste of the water. Our reverse osmosis filter systems can remove various types of sediments and particles, such as oocytes, cysts, and asbestos filters.
- Nitrates and Sulfates: Water sources near chemical factories and agricultural areas are exposed to several chemicals. Our RO systems can help reduce the concentration of sulfates and nitrates in water in these areas.
Reverse Osmosis Water System Performance Factors
Several factors affect the performance of reverse osmosis water filtration systems.
- Condition: The performance of a reverse osmosis water filtration system is affected by its condition. The performance may diminish if you observe signs of scaling, damage, and fouling. Inspecting and cleaning the membrane properly is important to ensure excellent performance.
- Temperature: This is one of the factors affecting the performance of a reverse osmosis water filter system. Water temperature and pressure of the RO system are directly proportional to each other. The RO permeate flow will increase when the temperature of the water increases and vice versa. For instance, when the water becomes viscous, its temperature will decrease and drop the RO permeate flow. In this scenario, high pressure is required to push water through the membrane.
- RO Pump Pressure: An RO membrane is designed for a specific pump pressure. This would help create a proper water flow and ensure consistent rejection of contaminants. Thin-film elements require low pump pressure, whereas the cellulosic membrane requires twice the pump pressure. The water flow will be affected if the RO water filtration equipment is operated at a low suggested pump pressure.
- Salt Rejection: This shows the contaminant removal ratio of a reverse osmosis water filter. An efficient RO system can reject 95% to 99% of contaminants in the water. The high salt rejection ratio shows high system performance, whereas the low salt rejection would shows low membrane performance. The low salt rejection would be an indicator that the membrane requires a replacement or cleaning.
- Salt Passage: This is the percentage of the salt passing through the system. A high salt passage would mean better system performance and vice versa.
- Recovery: This is the amount of water recovered as permeate water. Some amount of water gets collected as a product water or permeate.
Tips for Maintenance of Reverse Osmosis Water Filtration Systems
RO water filters require regular maintenance and you can perform it yourself. Here are some general tips for the maintenance of RO water purification systems.
- All RO water filters are provided with user manuals. Read the manual provided with your system to see the details on membrane cleaning, re-installation of the membrane, dos and donts, and other maintenance tips.
- Create a maintenance schedule and change the filters as per this schedule. Again, refer to the manual to see the replacement requirements of your filter. Some advanced water purification systems feature automatic water filter change alerts, which inform you if the filter needs to be changed. Generally, the replacement schedules for these filters would range from 6 months to 3 years. For instance, pre-filters would require replacement in 6 months; sediment filters in 12 months; RO membranes in 3-5 years; and post-RO carbon filter in 12 months.
- Next, you must clean and sanitize the system. The RO water purification system may comprise several pipes that move water from the pre-treatment to the purification stages. These pipes must be cleaned regularly to avoid the chances of microbial contamination. Most professionals would perform cleaning of pipes, filter, and storage tank during the filter or membrane replacements.
- Conduct a physical examination of the filter every day to identify leakages. You must contact a trained professional immediately if you notice any leakage. Else, it would damage the filtration system permanently. Leaks and drips lead to the wastage of water.
- Clean the exteriors of the RO water purification system regularly to avoid water contamination. This cleaning would also help make your filter look clean.
Applications of Reverse Osmosis Filtration Systems
We regularly provide RO systems for use across the following industries:
- Boiler feed
- Food and beverage industry
- Power and energy
Components of Reverse Osmosis Filtration Systems
A typical RO system may comprise the following components:
- Water Supply Connector: As the name suggests, this connector connects your RO system to the water supply. It is also known as feedwater supply adapter. The connector must be matched with the right valves and fittings for desired results.
- Sediment Pre-filter: This is a type of cartridge filter that helps remove grit, sand, minerals, and oxide particles from water. If left unremoved, then the contaminated water may clog the RO membrane or drain flow restrictor. Both these factors hinder water filtration. For effective results, the pre-filters must be changed every 6 months.
- Carbon Filter for Chlorine and Chloramine Removal: Chlorine has been the most popular disinfectant used for water sanitation over years. It helps prevent the growth of algae and harmful microbes that would cause serious illnesses and even death. The effectiveness of chlorine in killing microbes has been substantiated over the years. However, that is not enough. Chlorine residues in water can have a negative impact on RO membrane and above all – human health. Thus, many city water utilities set the chlorine level to 1.0 mg/L. The carbon filter helps remove chlorine from water and protects the membrane from its side effects. Some carbon filters are also designed to remove chloramines from water. There are several studies that substantiate the effects of chloramines on human health. These chloramines are byproducts of chlorine. For effective results, activated carbon must have sufficient contact time with chloramine. Effective chloramine removal is challenging than chlorine removal and requires almost five times more carbon contact time.
- Auto Shut Off Valve: RO storage tanks are fitted with auto shut-off valves, which would help reduce water wastage by stopping the reverse flow of water to drain when the tank is full. When the water storage tank is filled to 2/3 of its feed pressure the valve severs the water supply to the tank and restores it when the tank is drained to 1/3 of the feed pressure.
- Reverse Osmosis Membrane: This is the most effective component of the RO filtration system and removes 99% of total dissolved solids including different types of metals, minerals, salts, organic substances, and microorganisms. This membrane also serves as a barrier between the rejected water and purified water. Purified water is sent to the storage tank and rejected water is directed to the drain. Most RO systems are known to produce around 4 gallons of wastewater against 1 gallon of purified water.
- Check Valve: They help prevent filtered water from the pressurized tank from flowing back to the membrane when the shut-off valve turns the feed pressure to the membrane.
- Pressurized Water Storage Tank: The pressure tank stores the water purified by the membrane and provides filtered water on turning the water faucet. The tank features a water chamber and an air chamber, which is separated by a bladder. This bladder expands when the tank is filled with RO purified water. This expansion compresses air and when the faucet is turned on, this air pushes the water out.
- Drinking Water Faucet: They dispense purified water from a storage tank.
- Water Softener: If are you are familiar with your water chemistry which suggests the presence of several hard minerals, then you must pass the water through a softener before directing it to the RO system. A reliable water softener will help improve the lifespan of your RO membrane. If feed water comprises hard minerals and is directly made to pass through the membrane, its lifespan may reduce and require quick replacement.
- Optional RO Components: You can fit these water filtration systems with optional components such as:
- Booster Pumps: These pumps provide extra pressure to the RO membrane, and this helps ensure adequate flow from the system.
- TDS Water Quality Monitors: A TDS meter helps detect the working efficiency of your RO system. It helps analyze the capability of your distillation or RO system in removing harmful dissolved solids from water. TDS meters are an integral part of several service test systems, too.
Access to clean and pure drinking water is important for everyone. This realization has always driven us to offer superior water treatment systems. Our selection features several commercial and home filtration systems and their accessories. Often, owing to such a vast selection, choosing the right system becomes a daunting task. This is where our experts can help. Feel free to get in touch with our experts if you have any queries on reverse osmosis filtration systems or any other water filtration systems offered by us. We would be happy to guide you to the right solution and restore your access to clean water.
Frequently Asked Questions on Reverse Osmosis Water Filters
- Is water produced by reverse osmosis water filters safe to drink?
Yes, water produced by RO water filters are safe to drink. These water filtration systems can filter all unwanted contaminants, heavy metals, and minerals from water.
- How often should I change the membrane element of reverse osmosis water filters?
A membrane can last 3-5 years if pretreated or disinfected regularly. Along with maintenance, their lifespan also depends on the quality of water. For instance, if a RO filter is made to purify water with higher ionic concentration, the wear and tear on the membrane will be high. However, this wear and tear reduces for water with low ionic concentrate.
- Do RO systems waste a lot of water?
This would depend on the type of RO system you use. The ratio of purified water to wastewater in any system would be around 3:1 or 4:1.
- Do I need to approach a professional to install reverse osmosis water filters?
Yes, it is always recommended to get all the installation done by a professional, because plumbing requires expertise. Although some portable RO water filters are easy to install, still getting it done by a professional will help ensure its efficiency and safety.
- Do I need a separate faucet for RO water?
This would depend on the type of RO water filter used. Some filters may require a separate faucet to dispense purified water. This would help prevent the mixing of purified water with unfiltered water.
- Can iron damage the RO membrane?
Yes, iron is known to damage the RO membrane, because it is not easily flushed out of the system. The iron deposits will build up over the time, and clog the membrane permanently. Hence, it is recommended that water with more than 1ppm of iron must be treated before sending to the RO filtration system. Higher concentrations of iron can be removed using a manganese greensand filter or pyrolox. However, the trace amounts of up to 2ppm can easily treated using the water softener.
- Is RO water safe for hydroponics and aquaponics?
Yes, RO water is safe for hydroponics and aquaponics. You can also use them in aquariums, as they are free of contaminants and chemicals.
- Can I use reverse osmosis water filtration systems for treating well water?
You can use reverse osmosis water filtration systems to treat well water. However, before using it, ensure your well water is tested for contaminants.
- Are reverse osmosis water filters driven by electricity?
RO systems are designed to work on water pressure. The water is pushed through the membrane at pressure to remove contaminants. Thus, they do not need electricity to operate. Some RO systems are fitted with pumps or electric boosters, which help create the necessary pressure for the membrane operation.
- Are reverse osmosis filters effective in the removal of dissolved gases?
No, reverse osmosis filters cannot remove dissolved gases such as hydrogen sulfide, which is known to cause rotten egg odor.